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Baia Mare
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TRANSCARPATHIAN TOURISM - STUDY

TRANSCARPATHIAN TOURISM – NETWORK FOR PROMOTION OF TOURISM IN MARAMUREŞ, ZAKARPATIA AND IVANO-FRANKIVSK REGIONS

STUDY ABOUT BORDER TOURISM IN THE REGION

ABSTRACT

The project wants to achieve a network of tourism information at international level, being oriented to expansion of impact zone of integrated regional tourism offer and development of tourist offer by stimulating the interest of tourists in transcarpathian area.
The project is included in PRIORITY 1- Promotion and local social-economic development, measure 1.1 Expansion and development of tourism within Phare 2004 – 2006 CBC Romania-Ukraine, being financed by this program according to grant contract RO 2005 /017-539.01.01.15.
General objective is the increase of local public administration capacity to involve in supporting tourism sector, by actions that are of its competence, i.e. promotion of tourism potential by modern means.
In order to achieve the study about border tourism in the region, primary and secondary studies were made.
1. General presentation of Maramureş-Transcarpathia-Ivano-Frankivsk crossborder area
1.1. Location and access
Maramureş County is situated in North-West part of Romania, having border with Ukraine in the North. Transcarpathia region is situated in the West of Ukraine at the border between Carpathian Mountains and depression of middle sector of Danube. Ivano Frankivsk region is situated in the South-West of Ukraine.
There are road access, railway access and air access among these regions. Road access in the area from Slovakia is made by European Road E50. European Road E58 makes the connection between Ukraine and Romania reaching Chişinău by Iaşi. The link Romania- Ukraine by Maramureş is made by Sighetu Marmaţiei crossborder point that functions as international traffic.
Baia Mare is connected directly by railway to Satu Mare and other railway points. Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk regions have a developed railway network and links with the centres within and outside.
Air access is made by the 3 airports in the area: Baia Mare International Airport, Uzhgorod International Airport and Ivano-Frankivsk International Airport.
1.2. Relief and climate
Maramureş relief is mainly mountainous, the volcanic mountains surrounding Maramureş depression. Altitude varies from 200m to 2,303m. Hydrographic network is 3100 km long. Climate varies according to relief forms; it is temperate continental, with wind from South West and South East. Hydrography of the county is completed by a series of natural and artificial lakes.
Transcarpathia region is crossed from North-East to South-East by mountains that cover approximately 80% of the region. The beech forest in the Carpathians that is in the region was recognised as UNESCO World Heritage in 2007. The climate of the region is temperate continental.
Ivano-Frankivsk region is divided in 3 regions: mountainous, under-mountainous and plain. The Carpathians are in the South-West part of the region and cover almost half of the area. 1/3 is covered by forests which means 10% of national forests resources. The climate is slightly continental with cool summers and mild winters.
1.3. Place and role of the tourism field in national and regional economy
Maramureş county, Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk regions are considered important touristic regions of Romania and Ukraine. Tourism sector plays an important role in the economy of the 3 regions, the number of tourists increasing in the recent years. Tourist network includes 232 hotels and other tourist structures, from which 153 are in Maramureş County, 45 in Transcarpathia and 34 in Ivano-Frankivsk.
In Romania, “Hotels and restaurants” sector brought 2.6% to GDP in 2006. Compared to 2000, sector’s contributions increased with 44.3%.
According to World Travel&Tourism Council (WTTC), direct incomes from tourist sector will represent in 2009 approximately 2.1% of Romania’s GDP. For 2009, WTTC estimates direct incomes from tourism of 3,695 mil USD, total incomes of 9,943 mil USD.
Employed staff in tourist industry and related industries in Romania will represent 6.8% from the total of employed persons in 2009, according to WTTC. Among EU countries, Romania was classified on 18th place from 27 countries by tourism market size.
1.4. Place and role of the tourism field in county economy
In 2006, in Maramureş County, there were 406 active economic units in “Hotels and restaurants” sector from a total of 8,702 units according to data published by DJS Maramureş.
On 31 December 2007, in Maramureş County, there were 10,750 active economic units. Total turnover of these units was in 2007 of 10,266,611 hundred lei. Number of employed persons in county’s economy was in 2007 of 82,681 persons, of which the medium number of wage earners was 80,698 persons.
In “Hotels and restaurants” sector in 2007 in Maramureş county, there were 501 active economic units, of which 455 small firms and 46 small and medium firms. From these, 153 were structures with tourist accommodation function.
Compared to region’s economy, the share of employees in “Hotels and restaurants” sector was in 2007 of 2.77% from total employees.

2. Tourist resources of Maramureş –Transcarpathia – Ivano-Frankivsk area
2.1 Presentation of tourist resources of Maramureş –Transcarpathia – Ivano-Frankivsk cross border area
Maramureş
Maramureş County has a very important natural patrimony, having 38 protected areas, from which 3 are scientific reservations, 1 biosphere reservation, 17 nature monuments, 13 natural reservations and 3 protected natural areas by Decision of Local Council. Rodna Mountains National Park is included among the most important areas, as a protected natural area of national and international interest, being included in category II: National Park- biosphere reservation. Maramureş Mountains Natural Park is the second in Romania having an area of 148,850 ha, i.e. more than 10% from total of protected areas in the country.
Flora and fauna are characteristic to Oriental Carpathians with high biodiversity due to ecologic factors. On Lăpuş river there is Lăpuş Defile Natural Reservation being 25 km long.
Hydrographic resources of Maramureş County are the springs with mineral water, natural glacial lakes in Rodnei and Gutâiului Mountains, those with salt at Ocna Şugatag and Coştiui, those at Strâmtori-Firiza and Runcu-Brazi-Firiza.
Transcarpathia
The most important resource of Transcarpathia region is represented by forests, that has aprox 50 % from its area, that is 700 hundred ha. This treasure of the region is included in protected areas: Synevyr National Park, Carpathians biosphere reservation and Uzhans’kyi National Park.
Transcarpathia has rich balneary resources – mineral and thermal springs. In the region there were over 700 springs with mineral water and salt water, these being used as entertainment and in industry. The curative qualities of these waters are taken into consideration in over 20 sanatoriums and medical centres in the region.
Ivano-Frankivsk
Natural Patrimony of Ivano-Frankivsk region is represented by Carpathians Mountains, Cheremosh, Prut and Bistriţa Rivers, thick forests that cover 40% of the area, mineral waters with curative properties and others.
Carpathians Natural Park, Gutsul’schyna Natural Park and Gorgany Natural Reservation preserve also the diversity of natural landscape of the region, being declared protected areas.
Popular tourist destinations in the region are its hydrographic resources: Maricheika and Nesamovyte lakes, water courses and water falls. The region has 5 resorts and 2 sanatoriums with mineral waters. The resorts are: Kosiv, Tatariv, Yaremche, Vorokhta and Cherche.
2.2 Tourism forms practised in Maramureş –Transcarpathia – Ivano-Frankivsk border region
Tourism forms practised in Maramureş are: ecologic tourism, balneary tourism, mountains tourism, cultural tourism, ecumenical tourism, business and events tourism, rural tourism and agrotourism.
Tourism forms practised in Transcarpathia are: treatment and relaxing tourism, cultural tourism, ecumenical tourism, business tourism, sports tourism, ethnic tourism.
Tourism forms practised in Ivano-Frankivsk are: treatment and relaxing tourism, business tourism, sports tourism, cultural tourism.
2.3 The main tourist attractions of Maramureş –Transcarpathia - Ivano-Frankivsk crossborder region
Maramureş
Maramureş is made of 4 ethnic zones with special customs and traditions: Lăpuş Country, Chioar Country, Codru Country and Maramureş Country.
Main urban localities are: Baia Mare Municipality, which is county residence, Sighetu Marmaţiei-capital of Historical Maramureş, Târgu Lăpuş-one of the oldest localities in documentary evidence. Baia Mare is an important urban centre in the North-West of Romania. The old centre of the city is special for its historical monuments from the XVth C: Piaţa Libertăţii, Elisabeta House, Market of Fortress dominated by Stefan Tower. In Baia Mare a person can visit: Ioan de Hunedoara Residence, The place of Imperial Mint, The old Inn Black Eagle, Lendvay Residence, Stefan Tower, Holy Trinity Church, “Adormirea Maicii Domnului” Cathedral, Culture House, Dramatic Theatre, “Monument of Romanian Soldier”.
The well known castles, fortresses and towers in the county are: Teleki Castle in Pribileşti-Satulung, Teleki Castle in Coltău, Chioar Fortress, Stefan Tower and Butchers’ Tower in Baia Mare.
In Maramureş there are around 100 wooden churches, from which at least 30 are real works of art: Bârsana, Bogdan Vodă, Borşa, Botiza, Budeşti Josani, Budeşti Susani, Călineşti, Corneşti, Cupşeni, Deseşti, Fereşti, Hărniceşti, Ieud Deal, Ieud Şes, Lăpuş, Mănăstire, Plopiş, Poienile de sub Munte, Poienile Izei, Rogoz, Rona de Jos, Rozavlea, Săliştea de Sus, Sat Şugatag, Şieu etc. The wooden churches cover the whole historical Maramureş that is situated on both parts of Tisa, from the Romanian South part, to the Ukrainian North side.
The Săpânţa “Merry cemetery” is famous for its coloured crosses, naïve pictures representing scenes from the life and occupation of people. It originates in several crosses made by Stan Ioan Pătraş in 1935.
Originality of Maramureş consists of peasants’ crafts that combined spirituality and beauty in home use objects, ornaments and tools work. Masters in wood work, people of Maramures made from the gates and wooden churches real symbols of the region.
Real proofs are the wooden gates in Berbeşti, Fereşti, Călineşti, Sârbi and Budeşti and in the museums in open air in Sighet and Baia Mare. Popular clothes vary according to ethnic zone.
Traditional cuisine has a unique aspect. The main attraction of tourists is traditional food and the well-known drink called “pălincă” or “horincă”.
The most important museums in Maramureş are:
 Museum of Maramureş Village in Sighetu Marmaţiei;
 Memorial of Victims of Communism and Resistance Sighet;
 Elie Wiesel Memorial House;
 Museum of Mineralogy in Baia Mare that is the biggest regional museum in Europe containing over 1000 mineral pieces, rocks and fossils and in deposits there are other 15,000 pieces;
 Museum of History and Archeology;
 “Dr Ioan Mihaliy of Apsa” Memorial House.
Transcarpathia
The most important cities are: Uzhgorod, Berehove, Mukacheve, and Kust.
In the region there are well-known castles and fortresses: Uzhgorod Castle that is more than 1000 years old, Chynadievo Castle built in XVth C, Shenborn Castle built in French style in 1890, Palanok Castle that is said to be from IX-Xth C, Serednje Castle built in XIIth C and was property of Templars Knights, Khust Castle built in XIth C from wood and later from stone.
The region has special churches including wooden churches such as: Hetyen Protestant Church, Muzhiyevo Protestant Church, Dorobratovo Church, “Acoperământul Maicii Domnului” Church Horiany Rotunda, “St Ana” Wooden Church in Bucoveţ, “St Virgin Maria” Wooden Church in Costrino, “St Mihai” Wooden Church, “St Nicolae” Wooden Church etc.
As far as monuments are concerned, in Rahiv district in the region there is the geographic centre of Europe. Here there is the symbolic monument that has an inscription in Latin from 1887. In Perecin district there is the only monument of the postman in the world: Fedor Fekete Monument.
In the region there are well-known museums. Museum of Transcarpathia region has almost 110,000 exhibits, representing the flora and fauna of the region, history, popular art and numismatics collection. “Vasile cel Mare” Greek-Catholic Monastery hosts the Physics and Biology departments of Uzhgorod National University. Museum of Popular Architecture in Uzhgorod is an open air museum and has 30 traditional structures from villages of the region.
Ivano-Frankivsk
The region has the name of the great Ukrainian writer and scientist Ivan Franko that was born in these places.
The most important urban settlements are: Ivano-Frankivsk, situated on foot of the Carpathians; Yaremche, called “Carpathians’ Pearl”, surrounded by forests and mountain peaks, city known for SPA treatments; Kolomyia, centre of Pokuttya region, where there is Museum of Easter Eggs; Kosiv, known for its crafts, engravings in wood, leather articles, ceramic products, and embroidery.
In the region there are well-known castles and fortresses: Halych Castle (XIVth C), from the district with the same name, that was gate at South West between old Russia and ruins of Starostynsky Castle, on Nistru River, having a long history of destruction and reconstruction.
In the region there are several special churches, hermitages, monasteries. Manyavsky hermitage was built in 1612 by a monk from Athon-Greece. He had a cultural and religious influence in entire region. Church of Holy Rise is a Greek-Catholic cathedral built in 1753, very active in the present, led by monks and nuns. Armenian Church belongs today to Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Built in Baroque style, it is situated on the old place of a wooden church from 1665.
Ivano-Frankivsk has well-known museums such as Arts Museum in the city which has the biggest collection of icons, wood sculptures and wood pictures. The old town hall in Ivano-Frankivsk was turned into Museum of Natural History and contains bones of mammoth, remains of iron objects and collections of old Galicia kings. Hutsulshchyna and Pokuttya Museum of Folk Art was opened in 1926 and in the present it has the biggest collection of tools, metal articles and ceramics, national costumes and embroidery. Pysanka Museum (Easter egg) is unique in the whole world and it is placed in the centre of Kolomyia city. Its architecture is very original having the shape of an egg 4 m high and with a diameter of almost 10 m. The museum has a very rich collection of “pysankas” - Easter Eggs.

3. Present stage of revaluation of the tourist resources in Maramureş –Transcarpathia - Ivano-Frankivsk crossborder region
3.1 Analysis of tourist offer
Accommodation units
In the studied region there are 232 structures of tourist accommodation registered from which 66% in Maramureş county, 19.4% in Transcarpathia and 14.6% in Ivano-Frankivsk.
In 2007, in Maramureş County there were 153 structures of tourist accommodation, from which 59% rural hostels, 17% urban hostels and 14% hotels.
In Transcarpathia there are 45 hotels and other structures of tourist accommodation in 2007, these having in average 40.5 rooms/accommodation unit.
Ivano-Frankivsk has 34 hotels and other structures of tourist accommodation of this type, according to data from 2007. Average number of rooms on unit of accommodation is 43.2 rooms/accommodation unit, i.e. 1,469 rooms. Treatment and relaxing units in Ivano-Frankivsk are 40% health-resorts for treatment, 31% rest bases, 20% health-clinics for treatment, 9% houses and rest resorts.
Capacity of tourist accommodation
On the 31 July 2007 in Maramureş County there were 3,635 accommodation places for tourists with 1.08% more than the previous year. Approximately 97% of these were functioning during the year, 3% being closed temporarily. Hotels have 47% of accommodation places in function in Maramureş in 2007, and rural hostels have 23% of total accommodation places in function. In 2007 in October there were most of the places in function.
In Transcarpathia, hot season is represented by June and July when 47.1%, respectively 41.2 % of units that are included in primary study function at maximum capacity. In cold season, 68.2% of accommodation units are at maximum capacity in January, 27.3% in December, and 4.5% in September.
In Ivano-Frankivsk, 68.4% of accommodation units that were included in the study are at maximum capacity in July. In cold season, 50% from accommodation units are at maximum capacity and 41.7% units in January.
Index of use of accommodation capacity in function
According to official data, the index of use of accommodation capacity in function registered in Maramureş county decreased continuously beginning with 2001, from 32% to 17,4% in 2007. According to the type of accommodation structures, the index of use of accommodation capacity in function registered in 2007 different values: hotels 25.9%, pupils’ camps 18.1%, motels 15.5%, urban hostels 15.1%, hostels 14.7%, tourist villas 14.4%, tourist huts 3.8%, and rural hostels 3.3%.
According to the study made on accommodation units in Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk, their representatives declared that for 2008 in Transcarpathia region, the index of use of accommodation capacity has a value of 69.7%, and in Ivano-Frankivsk region it has a value of 63.1%.
3.2 Analysis of tourist demand
Tourist movement in the area
According to official data, in 2007, 108.8 hundred arrivals were registered in Maramureş County, with 12.3% more than the previous year, their number increasing since 2004. From the total number of arrivals in the county, 80% are Romanian tourists and 20% are foreign tourists.
In Transcarpathia, the number of tourists in 2007 was 72,970 persons. From the total number of tourists in 2007, Ukrainian tourists represent 72%, Ukrainian tourists that travel abroad 15.7% and foreign tourists that visit the region 12.3%. Following the study, the percent of foreign tourists in 2008 was 28.8%.
In Ivano-Frankivsk, the number of tourists in 2007 was 737,953 tourists. Compared to 2006, figures about tourist movement made a positive significant jump, the number of tourists increasing 2.27 times. The percent of foreign tourists that visit Ivano-Frankivsk region is 0.1% of total tourists, 98.6% of these being internal tourists and 1.1% Ukrainian tourists that travel abroad.
Seasons
Of all tourists that visited Maramureş County, in 2007, 51.3% chose hot season and 48.7% cold season.
Compared to Maramureş, in Transcarpathia 54.2% tourists prefer cold season, and 45.8% prefer hot season. The percent of tourists that visit Ivano-Frankivsk region in the hot season is 47.3%, and in cold season 52.7%.
Arrivals and night spent
Of all tourists in Maramureş, in 2007, 65.8% chose accommodation in hotels, 11.6% in urban hostels, 5.1% in rural hostels, 2% in tourist villas, 1.3% in hostels, 0.7% in tourist huts. 83.8% of foreign tourists in the county stayed in hotels.
The average duration of stay
In Maramureş County, in 2007, the average duration of stay was 2.1 nights. In the study made at units of tourist accommodation in Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk, the representatives estimated an average duration of stay of 4.7 days for foreign tourists and 5.5 days of internal tourists in Transcarpathia, and for Ivano-Frankivsk, an average duration of stay of 3.9 days for foreign tourists and 4.6 days for Ukrainian tourists.
Practised forms of tourism
In Maramureş County, the following forms of tourism are practised: cultural tourism, business tourism, balneary tourism, mountain tourism and ecological tourism.
In Transcarpathia, the following forms of tourism are practised: rest and relax tourism, balneary tourism, transit tourism, implicit tourism and business tourism. In Ivano-Frankivsk, weekend tourism, rest and relax tourism are practised.
3.3 Analysis to support tourism sector
Access infrastructure
The main road routes in Maramureş County are: European Road E58, two main national roads - DN 1C and DN 19, two routes of secondary national roads – DN 18 and DN 17C. Crossing points for international traffic Maramureş-Ucraina are: Vişeu Valley, Câmpulung la Tisa and Sighetu Marmaţiei. Main railways are: 400 and 409. Baia Mare International airport achieves transport of goods and persons.
In Transcarpathia, road access is made by European routes E40 and E50. There is a network of railways and airports: Uzhgorod Airport (international) and Mukachevo Airport (military).
In Ivano-Frankivsk, road access is made by road routes M19 and E50. Air access is made by Ivano-Frankivsk International Airport.
Local transport infrastructure
Public transport of persons among counties is made by operators of local and regional transport. In Baia Mare transport of persons is assured by Urbis Local Transport Firm.
In Ivano-Frankivsk, public transport is assured by minibuses. Taxi services in the three regions achieve the transport to wanted destinations.
Information Infrastructure
Information about tourist objectives, structures of tourist accommodation and other relevant information for tourists that visit the three tourist zones can be obtained from the centres of tourist information in Sighetu Marmaţiei, Baia Mare and Ivano-Frankivsk, and from tourist guides published also on the sites dedicated to tourism in Maramureş, Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk.
Communication system
Infrastructure of communications in Maramureş is assured by operators of fix telephony Astral Telecom, RDS, UPC and mobile Vodafone, Cosmote, Orange, Zapp. In Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk, telephony services are achieved by MTS, Life and Evant that made a network of aprox 50 distributors.
Tourist services
In offering tourist services, an important role belongs to tourist services that propose tourist packages in the three regions, vacation reservation, tourist programs organization, plane tickets reservation, insurance and financial services. Two or three stars hotels offer the client parking space, bar, restaurant, terrace, fitness hall, sauna, massage, ski slope, tourist routes, mountain routes, sports base. Four stars hotels offer multifunction hall for conferences, banquets, dinners, beauty salon, interior parking, sports room, room service, and club.
In Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk, hotel services have Internet, air conditioning, phone, TV, events and trips organization, conference halls, parking, entertaining activities, sports equipment for winter sports. In the sanatoriums, treatment services are offered.
Banking services
In Maramureş, Transcarpathia, Ivano-Frankivsk regions there are over 80 branches of the banking sector. In Maramureş there are 16 banking services suppliers that have a network of over 55 branches and in the two Ukrainian regions the banking services are offered in 26 branches.
Public services
Romanian Government wants the orientation and integration of national tourism in the regional and world tendencies and the objectives it has in this respect are the following:
 Increase of tourist movement on Romania’s territory,
 Diversification of offer and increase of tourist services quality.
Projects and programs are financed and implemented at national and regional level such as:
 Regional Operational Program 2007-2013, axis 5 “Durable Development and promotion of tourism”,
 Infotourism Program,
 Development Plan of North West Region ,
 Durable development of Gutin-Ţibleş-Rodna-Maramureş Mountains,
 Program of Cross border Cooperation IEVP Hungary-Slovakia-Romania-Ukraine 2007-2013,
 EU TACIS Program – project: “Durable development of rural tourism in Ukraine”.

4. SWOT analysis of tourism in Maramureş –Transcarpathia - Ivano-Frankivsk cross border zone
SWOT analysis of tourism in Maramureş
Strengths
• advantageous geographic location for cross border tourism
• existence of road and railway link with near counties
• existence of Baia Mare International Airport
• existence of rent-a-car service in Baia Mare
• existence of preserved local traditions and customs and their promotion by folk events
• existence of objectives in UNESCO patrimony
• existence of a great number of protected areas - 47
• existence of curative thermal and sulphurous waters
• existence of cultural-historical patrimony
• food diversity
• existence of a developed network of structures of tourist accommodation
• unique tourist objectives (Săpânţa Merry Cemetery)
Weaknesses
• poor condition of transport infrastructure
• crossing border points insufficiently used
• poor public transport
• traffic congestion in central areas and lack of parking places
• irregular international air flights
• advanced state of degradation of some tourist objectives
• insufficient centres for tourist information
• poor level of qualification of the human resources in tourism
• poor distribution of goods/services in the county
Opportunities
• facilitating access to Ukraine by eliminating the visa
• European financing for tourism development
• Existence of programs of modernizing the road infrastructure
• Existence of programs of tourism development at national and regional level
• Great interest in ecotourism.
Threats
• Insufficient promotion materials in foreign languages
• Tourist offers that cannot compete with those on international market
• Development of road infrastructure in other counties deviates the flow of tourists from Maramureş.
SWOT analysis of tourism in Transcarpathia
Strengths
• Transit geographic position on the South West border
• existence of Uzhgorod International Airport
• using balneary resources
• unique tourist objectives (Geographic Centre of Europe)
• the most part of the region’s territory is covered by mountains - 80%
• rapid and easy access from EU
• cultural and ethnic diversity
• high level of using ski slopes
• high level of using tourist potential of natural resources in the region
• great patrimony of wooden churches with historical and architectural importance
• traditions of special drinks
• great number of tourist balneary units
Weaknesses
• insufficiently developed tourist services
• insufficient promotion of tourism of the region in Ukraine and abroad
• lack of correspondence with European systems about standards of classifying the hotels
• lack of materials of tourist information in English
• lack of indicators for signaling offices of tourist information
• lack of offices for tourist information at customs points
• lack of exchange houses in lei
• lack of menus in English in restaurants
• road infrastructure insufficiently modernized
• insufficiently usage of Uzhgorod International Airport
• few units with parking space
• existence of only one flight between Ukraine and Romania, from Kiev
• insufficiently use of financing programs for cross border programs in tourism between Ukraine and Romania
• lack of quality public services
• the system of electronic payments is not accepted by most of tourist units
Opportunities
• Access of European grants funds (unlock of TACIS program)
• Speeding up the steps for Pre-accession of Ukraine to European Union
• Continuing the modernizing trend of tourist units
• Possibilities of mixt investments in Uzhgorod
• Great agrotourism potential of settlements in Transcarpathia
• Development of “Transcarpathia” brand
• Attracting European tourists in Ukraine with the possibility of crossing Transcarpathia.
Threats
• Tense relations between Ukraine and Russia may limit the number of Russian tourists
• Tourist routes from Poland may attract potential tourists of the region
• Mountain resorts in Austria and Poland and balneary resorts in Hungary may attract potential tourists of the region
• Nonstandardization and control of tourist activities may lead to development of underground economy in the domain
SWOT analysis of tourism in Ivano-Frankivsk
Strengths
• Favourable geographic position for border tourism on the South border of Ukraine
• Existence of Ivano-Frankivsk International Airport
• Large area covered by forests - 40% of territory
• High level of using tourist potential of natural resources of the region
• unique tourist objectives (Museum of Easter Eggs)
• use of balneary resources – great number of tourist balneary units
• facilitating the traffic Romania-Ukraine by existence of cross border points
Weaknesses
• insufficient promotion of tourism of the region in Ukraine and abroad
• lack of correspondence with European systems about standards of classifying hotels
• lack of materials for tourist information in foreign languages
• tourist services insufficiently developed
• lack of indicators for signaling offices for tourist information
• lack of offices for tourist information at customs points
• lack of exchange houses in lei
• lack of menus in English in restaurants
• road infrastructure insufficiently modernized
• few units with parking space
• insufficiently use of financing programs for cross border programs in tourism between Ukraine and Romania
• the system of electronic payments is not accepted by most of tourist units
Opportunities
• Access of European grants funds (unlock of TACIS program)
• Speeding up the steps for Pre-accession of Ukraine to European Union
• Continuing the modernizing trend of tourist units
• Great agrotourism potential of settlements in Ivano-Frankivsk
• Attracting European tourists in Ukraine with the possibility of crossing Ivano-Frankivsk.
Threats

• Tense relations between Ukraine and Russia may limit the number of Russian tourists
• Tourist routes from Poland may attract potential tourists of the region
• Nonstandardization and control of tourist activities may lead to development of underground economy in the domain
5. Perspectives of tourism development in Maramureş –Transcarpathia - Ivano-Frankivsk croos border region
In Romania a significant change of tourism is expected with the market entry of well-known international hotels chains: Radisson, Hyatt, Le Meridien. Along with business tourism which is the most developed, rural tourism is a sector in permanent development. Promotion actions on domestic and international market are very important. The following issues are taken into consideration:
 Modernization of structures of tourist accommodation;
 Conservation and promotion of architectural and cultural patrimony of local communities;
 Positive use of natural potential of the territory;
 Achieving the calendar of special year events at county and regional level and development of tourist packages;
 Expansion and promotion of the network of tourist centres;
 Achievement of formation courses in tourism, marketing, e-marketing.
In Maramureş County the following forms of tourism must be supported: rural and ethnic-folk tourism, mountain and ecological tourism, balneary tourism.
According to representatives of structures of tourist accommodation in Transcarpathia, the forms of tourism with the highest potential of development are: rest and relaxing tourism, business tourism and balneary cure tourism.
In Ivano-Frankivsk, opinions of half of representatives of structures of tourist accommodation converge to potential of development of rest and recreation tourism. The second form of tourism that can be developed is business tourism.
6. Conclusions
Maramureş –Transcarpathia - Ivano-Frankivsk border region has the advantage of a good access both internally and abroad due to its location in an area with common borders with more countries: Slovakia, Hungary, and Poland. Existence of 3 airports in the regions represents an important premise to stimulate abroad tourism.
Relief of Maramureş –Transcarpathia - Ivano-Frankivsk border region is mainly mountainous with beautiful landscape, with rich natural resources. Maramureş County has a valuable patrimony having 38 protected areas, springs with mineral water, natural glacial lakes, Salty Lake. Transcarpathia has not only rich forests resources, but also a beech forest recognized as being UNESCO World Patrimony since 2007. Transcarpathia and Ivano-Frankivsk regions are notable for balneary resources, their sanatoriums and treatment centres being well developed.
As far as anthropogenic resources are concerned, Maramureş County has castles, manors, memorial houses and museums, such as Castle at Pribileşti, Castle at Satulung. Beside these there are tourist resources specific to cultural religious tourism, wooden churches – approximately 100; 8 of them being part of UNESCO patrimony. Transcarpathia is one of the most impressive regions of Ukraine by its rich history and cultural heritage. Castles and wooden churches, Folk Museum of rural life are much appreciated. Ivano-Frankivsk has common elements with Transcarpathia: castles, sanatoriums, wooden churches.
Maramureş – Transcarpathia - Ivano-Frankivsk border region is well represented by structures of tourist accommodation supporting development of different forms of tourism in the area. The level of accommodation is high, climate conditions and tourist attractions offering special attraction.
The visits of the foreign tourists in the area are an important aspect, by its location in the border region. Tourism sector is supported by an easy access infrastructure within the county/regions.

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RO-2005/017-539.01.01.15

Project financed by the Romania Ukraine Vicinity Program 2004-2006
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