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Zakarpatia

Transcarpathia (Zakarpatia Oblast) is a region in Ukraine with its capital at Ujhorod. The region has a surface of 12.800 km², and it has 1.252.300 inhabitants. The most important ethnical groups are: Ukraine (78,4%), Hungarian(12,5%), Romanian(2,6%) and Russian (2,5%).

Since the end of the 10th th century until 1918, Transcharpatia was part of the Ukraine kingdom. Then it became part of Czechoslovakia until the Second World War, when it was annexed to the Ukraine SSR, in USSR.

In the 19th century the Transcarpathian region was divided into 18 districts: V.Bereznai, Perecin, Seredne, Uzzhorod, Corolevo, Teresva, Teacevo, Volove, Dovge, Hust, Svaleava, Latoriceanschii (Rosvigovo), Mezecosinschii (Cosino), Tisagatischii (Beregovo), Verhovinschii (Irsava), Velicoseveliuschii (Sevelius), Tisodolineanschii (Rahiv), Nijneveretchii (Nijnie Vorota).

On 10th September 1919 Transcarpathia officially became part of the Czechoslovak Republic and Gheorghii Jatcovici was named as its first governor. Uzhhorod town became the administrative center of the region. During the Czechoslovak Republic the culture and architecture flourished in Transcarpathia. In 1921 Uzhhorod town received cinema license, in 1927 they opened the single school in Europe for Romani (Gypsy). In 1929 the first airport was built in Transcarpathia, at Uzhhorod.
In fact, on 29th February 1920 the name Subcarpathian Rus appears in the Czechoslovak constitution. In the twenties there were 60 newspapers published in Transcarpathia – out of which 22 - in Hungarian, 10 - in Russian, 9 - in Rusyna, 5 - in Ivrit (Hebrew), 4 - in Czech, 4 - in Ukraine and 6 - mixed.

According to the decisions taken at Vienna on 2nd November 1938, part of Transcarpathia was given to Ukraine. In the other part of Transcarpathia on 15th March 1939 a new state organisation was proclaimed – The Carpathian Ukraine, with its center at Hust town and Augustin Volosin became its first president. Unfortunately this Carpathian state lasted for a very short period because it was occupied by Hungary. And in 1941 Hungary, to whom Transcarpathia belonged, entered the Second Word War.

The liberation period brought important changes in the life of the region. On 29th June 1945, the treaty of reunion with the USSR was signed in Moscow.
A period of development starts in the area: on 18th October 1945 the State University was found in Uzhhorod, and in 1956 the Tereblea-Rika hydroelectric power plant (for 130 mln kvt/s per year) was built. In 1956 the first electric railway engine started from Mucacevo to Lavocine.

In August 1991 Ukraine became independent.

Many old books and precious manuscripts are preserved in Transcarpathia: The Royal Gospel (1401), The Psalmbook from Mucacevo town (14th century), Ostrimirovo Gospel (14th century), Moscovita Gospel (16th century), The Russian Bible (15th century) of Francisc Scorini, The Bible from Ostrog (1581), of Ivan Fiodorov, Instructions for the Messengers of Bogdan Hmelniţchii, The Slavorus Lexicon and the decrypting of Numbers (1627 Pamva Berinda), The Romanian Gospel, Man's peace with God (1661, Inochentii Ghizeli), The Russian Grammar Book (1755, Mihail Lomonosov), The Short Description of the Fedor Coreatovici Foundation (Ioanichii Bazilovici), The Young Learners' Gospels from Neagoevsche, from Scotarsche (16th century), from Iza, from Danilovo (17th century), The Collection from Sochirnita (17th century), The Collection from Uglea Czech (17th century), Triod Kobaletca Poleana (1561), Alexandria (17th century), Uzhhorod, Pistrealovo, Tasiv.


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RO-2005/017-539.01.01.15

Project financed by the Romania Ukraine Vicinity Program 2004-2006
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